Can you give me some examples of “structures” which meet the R(2) definition but not the R(1) definition?
I can think of two recent ones.
Amazon scraps secret AI recruiting tool that showed bias against women
SAN FRANCISCO (Reuters) - Amazon.com Inc's () machine-learning specialists uncovered a big problem: their new…
HUD Secretary Ben Carson accuses Facebook of enabling housing discrimination
The Department of Justice on Friday formally opposed an effort by Facebook to dismiss a lawsuit by several housing…
Both of those are examples of systems which performed in a racist way but which weren’t developed by racists, they were developed by deep learning engines which were simply pattern matching.