I think you could equate the act of prayer to virtue signaling in that list of analogies as well.
Ooo, that’s interesting.
I know some very devout religious people who would claim that their acts of prayer are absolutely not virtue signaling, and I think they’d be right. But I know for a fact there are many churchgoers out there that basically only pray to be seen praying, which is almost definitively virtue signaling.
I like that. Very astute.