Controls for race are picking up a whole of different effects — everything from geography to discrimination. The point of a control variable is to remove these effects from influencing the coefficient on the variable of interest, not to be directly interpretable.

It is true that correlation != causation, and that you have to be caution in interpreting observational studies even when they have controls.

This same logic applies to gun ownership rate.

Conscientious objector to the culture war. I think a lot. mirror: www.freakoutery.com writer at: www.opensourcedefense.org beggar at: www.patreon.com/bjcampbell

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